Before starting the construction of an electrical substation, it is necessary to design it. Only professionals are able to deal with such work. If they do something wrong, the distribution and transformation of the current will go wrong. It can lead to a complete soft error, turning off electricity on certain and sometimes rather huge territory.
Regarding the US regions with a hot and temperate climate, it is worth paying special attention to the development of electrical substations. Almost every house has a powerful air conditioner. In summer, the load from such equipment is huge. If there is no device for correct conversion of electricity, there is a constant overload. In this regard, the whole city can lose its light for an indefinite period of time.
At the design stage, the engineer determines which type of transformer substation should be installed in the selected area. It is commonly known that there are step-up substation, step-down and stabilizing types of it. The first one converts the low voltage to a higher voltage and the current value decreases. A step-down substation increases the current, but reduces the voltage. It is necessary to increase it to save metal, which is used for the construction of power lines. With an active current resistance, its losses are reduced. Subsequently, the cross-section of the wires is determined by the strength of the transmitted voltage. Reduced current allows to transmit it for long distances.
Correctly designed substation allows to avoid electrical interruptions. In addition, special insulators of the same value are installed.
How is the design of an electrical substation made
The design of the transformer substation is carried out in conjunction with other thematic construction works. First, a technical assignment is made and the design capacity is calculated. All existing legislation and by-laws regulating the work of such stations are taken into account.
Further, an application is submitted to the energy supplying state companies. Subsequently, they will control all construction work and check them for compliance with the plan outlined. Experienced specialists should inspect the site construction site and give an opinion on how to connect the station, extend the power lines. In the process, the cost of construction and the possible load are calculated. But before that, we need to determine the type of substation that is going to be built.
Types of substations
While considering types of substations, it is necessary to separate them into categories by their functionality. Here we are talking about transformer and converter types. The first one is designed to convert an electrical current from one type of voltage to another. This is made with the help of special devices - transformers. The transformation variety distributes the current and its frequency. It also converts AC to DC and vice versa. There also exist a distribution point or an electrical substation.
Regarding a place where an electrical network is connected to the transformer there also exist some categories. Dead-end, for example, are connected to one or two lines. Branch lines have several transmitted lines. Passes are connected by entering a two-way network. Through the nodal lines pass three or more feeding lines.
The subsequent work of the transformer converter depends on how correctly it is designed. And it is important not only for large US cities, but also for small counties. That is why a special attention should be given for design.