Nowadays even schoolchildren know what 3d printer is. This device opens up unique business opportunities. 3d printing is used in many areas, such as:
• The medicine
• Mechanical Engineering
• Science, etc.
What is a 3d printer and how does it work?
The concept of 3 d printing itself is synonymous with “additive manufacturing” - production, which is based on the addition of material. For example, when cutting or milling, the material is removed, and the additive production involves adding material to produce a solid model at the output. For example, casting can be attributed to this category, but in order to obtain the 3 d qualification it is important that the final product be obtained directly from the raw material, without fabricated parts. An important component of this technology is computer control, with the help of which digital models of products can be built and visualized. Actually, this fact did not allow 3d printing to be widely distributed, until 3d modeling became widely available.
What is 3d printer made of?
• Extruder. It is responsible for the smelting and application of heatable thread
• Work surface for printing. It is also called the table. His task is to prevent cracks, disruptions, to ensure a junction between the first layers and the table. The dimensions of the working surface can be different.
• Stepper motors.
• Linear motor. Responsible for print speed and accuracy.
• End sensors - they are limiting the range of motion of the drives, in order to avoid the head going beyond the table.
• Printer frame.
3D printing technologies
There are a lot of them, but let's highlight the most key ones:
- Extrusion 3D printing - multi-jet printing and layer-by-layer lining. The sence of technology consists in the extrusion of consumables for a specific product. Thermoplastic or composite materials are understood here as the consumables.
- Sintering, melting, gluing. The principle of this technology is based on combining the powder material into one. Powders are made from any material that has been ground into powder — wood, metal, plastic. The formation is done by gluing.
- Melting and sintering with a laser allows to create monolithic parts by sintering layers of powder material. SLS is used to work with powder metal and plastic materials. Using this method, non-fragile monolithic models can be created.
- Stereo lithography. This technology involves the use of "photopolymer resins." Each layer of resin on the platform corresponds to the layer of the finished product and hardens when exposed to a laser beam.
- LOM lamination. This technology is based on working with sheet materials (foil, plastic film). The material is layered and cut along the contour. Cutting can be done with a blade or a laser. Such devices are suitable for creating layouts.
- Layer-by-layer welding. This 3 d printing method is popular in everyday life and offices. The cost of such a 3d device is reduced due to the high demand for it and along with the development of technology. Coils with plastic in the form of thin threads are used as consumables. Most often used for printing "PLA-plastic". It is made from sugar cane or corn, so the products at the exit are non-toxic and eco-friendly.
Layer-by-layer welding is used for the manufacture of household devices - toys, plastic cases, etc. In addition, units of this type can print with nylon or other thermoplastics. To create complex geometrically shaped forms, sometimes PVA plastic is used.
Regardless of the printing method, the principle of operation of the 3d printer is as follows:
1. Visualization or rendering of the object in the program for 3d - modeling.
2. Processing of the model and converting it into a digital code.
3. 3d printing.